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References & Links - Photoluminescent Exit Signs & Exit Path Markings

    
  

Articles which reference photoluminescent technology and the use of reliable and effective, non-electric, non-radioactive photoluminescent safety signs, markers, films, tapes and coatings:

SELECTING APPROPRIATE EGRESS STRATEGIES.
The selection of an appropriate egress strategy requires a good understanding of the building and its occupants, the protection measures in place, and the expected emergency response. Jeffrey Tubbs & Brian Meacham. Consulting-Specifying Engineer. September 2008.


The best and most advanced fire-protection devices are of little use if the human element- human action or inaction- isn't taken into account and addressed on a planned, periodic and proactive basis.

EverGlow photoluminescent exit signs and egress markings are essentially passive life safety systems. Because we provide non-electrical emergency lighting and exits that require virtually no human action or maintenance after proper installation, EverGlow confidently states that our photoluminescent signs and markings offer maximum reliability and effectiveness.

EverGlow believes that the use of multiple life safety systems, photoluminescent as well as those employing electrical activation, provide the best possible protection of life for occupants and emergency responders.


MEANS OF EGRESS.
The definition and use of the phrase "means of egress" have changed through different editions of the NFPA 101 Life Safety Code, ICC International Building Code and International Fire Code. James K. Lathrop and clay Aler. Fire Protection Engineering, Penton Media, Inc. May 2011


WHAT IS PHOTOLUMINESCENT MARKING? Part 1 of 3 Parts.
The use of photoluminescent pathway marking has increased dramatically since the 1980s. James D. Amy. Building Operating Management, Trade Press. July 2008


IBC, NEW YORK MANDATE PHOTOLUMINESCENT MARKINGS. Part 2 of 3 Parts.
Since the 2009 edition of the IBC (International Building Code) will require photoluminescent pathway marking in new high rise buildings, it's worth looking back on the experiences of facility executives in New York City, where Local Law 26 required photoluminescent pathway marking in all high rise office buildings by July 2006. James D. Amy. Building Operating Management, Trade Press. July 2008 July 2008


A BRIEF HISTORY OF PHOTOLUMINESCENT MARKING. Part 3 of 3 Parts.
James D. Amy. Building Operating Management, Trade Press. July 2008


ESCAPING THE RING OF FIRE.
During a fire, facility managers need to evacuate employees and protect the building's future. Chad A. Safran. Today’s Facility Manager, Group C Communications, Inc. July 2008


FIRE (SAFETY) SYSTEMS GO HAND IN HAND WITH HUMAN FACTORS.
Al Niederfringer and Lee West. Buildings Magazine, Stamats Business Media. June 2008


TO STAY OR NOT TO STAY: EGRESS AND THE I-CODES.
Following all major tragedies, code-making bodies are faced with numerous code change proposals. In the wake of Sept 11, emergency egress took the lion's share of the attention. Gary Lewis. Consulting-Specifying Engineer. May 2008.


RETHINKING HIGH-RISE EGRESS, TOP TO BOTTOM.
In the wake of September 11, designers devise more efficient ways to get building occupants out - and first responders in. Scott Siddens. Consulting-Specifying Engineer. January 2008.


COMPLY OR DIE.
Fire code violations can be expensive and threaten the safety of everyone in the facility. Robert A. Neale. Today’s Facility Manager, Group C Communications, Inc. September 2007.


U.S. TALL BUILDINGS ON TERRORIST HIT LIST: EXAMINING THE IMPLICATIONS AND SHORT-TERM STRATEGIES.
Barbara A. Nadel. Buildings, Security Newsletter for Commercial Buildings, Stamats Business Media. August 2007.


HIGH-RISE SAFETY, INTERNATIONAL CODES, AND TALL BUILDINGS: RISING TO MEET THE CHALLENGE.
Barbara A. Nadel. Buildings, Stamats Business Media. July 2007.


HOW THE GSA ENSURES SAFETY AND SECURITY.
Dave Frable. Fire Protection Engineering, Emerging Trends Newsletter, Penton Media, Inc. May 2007.


EXIT ROUTES.
Manny Muniz. Fire Chief, Penton Media, Inc. February 2007.


PLANNING FOR EMERGENCY EVACUATION - WHAT'S SAFE AND WHAT'S REQUIRED.
Domini Hedderman. The COOPERATOR, the Co-Op & Condo Monthly, Yale Robbins, Inc. December 2006.


ESCAPE FROM NEW YORK - THE USE OF PHOTOLUMINESCENT PATHWAY MARKING SYSTEMS IN HIGH RISE OFFICE BUILDINGS.
James D. Amy, Jr. Fire Protection Engineering, Emerging Trends Newsletter, Penton Media, Inc. December 2006.


TAKING A LOOK AT PHOTOLUMINESCENT SYSTEMS.
James Piper. Building Operating Management, Trade Press Publishing Corp., August 2006.


PHOTOLUMINESCENT TECHNOLOGY: RELIABLE EMERGENCY LIGHTING IN BUILDINGS.
When the electricity goes out and a building must be evacuated, photoluminescent technology could be the guiding light that leads tennants to safety. Lynn Proctor Windle. Building Operating Management, Trade Press Publishing Corp., June 2006.


PHOTOLUMINESCENT TECHNOLOGY: RELIABLE EMERGENCY LIGHTING IN BUILDINGS.
When the electricity goes out and a building must be evacuated, photoluminescent technology could be the guiding light that leads tennants to safety. Lynn Proctor Windle. Building Operating Management, Trade Press Publishing Corp., June 2006.


PHOTOLUMINESCENCE SHINES THROUGH.
This technology is gaining market share because it offers durability and cost advantages ... .
Reprinted with permission from the June 2004 issue of Occupational Health & Safety magazine, © 1105 Media Inc.


NEW STANDARDS LIGHT THE WAY TO BUYING PHOTOLUMINESCENT MARKINGS.
Katrina C. Arabe. ThomasNet, Industrial Market Trends. January 2001. (From an article by Rimbach Publishing in September 2000, Photoluminescent Safety Markings Lead the Way When the Lights are Out.)




Research Relating to the Reliability & Effectiveness of Photoluminescent Exit Signs and Exit Path Markings:

The following research, conducted by the National Research Council of Canada, clearly shows that photoluminescent exit path marking systems help people move safely and quickly down dark exit stairs. Photoluminescent exit path marking systems provide 100% reliable and effective wayguidance, and this form of emergency lighting works even when electrical emergency lighting and back-up systems fail.

During fire drills, occupant egress rates for completely dark exit stairs marked with floor level photoluminescent (PL) exit path markings are shown to be comparable or faster than those egress rates of occupants using electrically lighted exit stairs.

The more recent study, completed in 2007, compares the effectiveness of different code compliant PL exit path marking systems, used in completely dark exit stairs, with electrical emergency lighting levels in exit stairs. The egress rate of occupants in all stairs was comparable to that of occupants in the exit stairs with electrically powered emergency lighting. All PL signs and markings were constructed using strontium aluminate pigment (SrAl) and have luminance values that meet current minimum code requirements in NYC and US model building and life safety codes. The different PL systems used in each exit stair had similar luminance for stair markers, handrail markers and signs.

The study completed in 1999 compares the egress rates of occupants descending fully lighted exit stairs and completely dark stairs with zinc sulfide (ZnS) markings. Photoluminescent signs and markings constructed with ZnS phosphors do not pass current building codes in the US because this pigment cannot store enough light energy to meet minimum code requirements for luminance at 60 and 90 minutes after a power failure or other emergency.


EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT PHOTOLUMINESCENT STAIRWELL INSTALLATIONS FOR THE EVACUATION OF OFFICE BUILDING OCCUPANTS.
Proulx, G.; Benichou, N; Hum, JK; Restivo, KN. Research Report IRC-RR-232. Institute for Research in Construction, National Research Council Canada. July 2007.


ASSESSMENT OF PHOTOLUMINESCENT MATERIAL DURING OFFICE OCCUPANT EVACUATION.
Proulx, G.; Tiller, D.K.; Kyle, B.R.; Creak, J. Internal Report IRC-IR-774. Institute for Research in Construction, National Research Council Canada. April 1999.


LITERATURE REVIEW ON PERFORMANCE OF PHOTOLUMINESCENT MATERIAL USED AS A SAFETY WAYGUIDANCE SYSTEM.
Proulx, G.; Benichou, N; Hum, JK; . Research Report IRC-RR-214. Institute for Research in Construction, National Research Council Canada. March 2006.


A SURVEY OF EXIT FACILITIES IN HIGH RISE OFFICE BUILDINGS.
Galbreath, M. Research Report IRC-RR-64. Institute for Research in Construction, National Research Council Canada. October 1968.




Photoluminescent Technology is Economical and Energy Efficient:

How to Buy Energy Efficient Exit Signs, US Department of Energy. February 2005.

Advanced Lighting Guidelines, The New Buildings Institute. 2003.



Standards and Codes that Directly Address Photoluminescent Exit Signs and Exit Path Markings:

Recent Model Code Changes for Approved Exit Signs - IBC, IFC, NFPA 101. 2009.
Recent Model Code Changes for Approved Exit Path Markings - IBC, IFC, NFPA 101. 2009.

NFPA Codes Online - Complete List of NFPA Codes and Standards
You must (create a) log-in (free, with your user name and password) to view complete NFPA codes and standards.


National Fire Safety Strategies Report - Vision 20/20 from The Institution of Fire Engineers, US Branch

OSHA Factsheet - Requirements for Emergency Exit Routes.
OSHA Evacuation Plans & Procedures - Exit Route Demonstration.

US Dept. of Labor, 29 CFR- Maintenance, Safeguards, and Operational Features for Exit Routes.

Facilities Standard for the Public Buildings Service, P100-2010 - Updated and Published for GSA in November 2010.

Facilities Standard for the Public Buildings Service, P100-2005 (Chapters 1 and 7, Created May 2005 and Revised May 2007).

US Dept. of Defense Unified Facilities Criteria 3-600-01

2007 California Building Code and Occupancy Classifications Requiring Photoluminescent, Floor Level Exit Signs or Exit Path Markings.

Building Code Interpretation by the California State Fire Marshall on the Use of Photoluminescent Exit Signs Evaluated and Tested to UL924. July 2004.

New Building Code for New York City, Effective October, 2014. Enforced starting January, 2015.

New York City RS 6-1. May 2005.

Summary of NYC Local Law 26 of 2004.

New York City, Local Law 26 of 2004.

US Dept of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration - 14 CFR Part 25 Section 25.812

US Dept of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration - Performance Demonstrations of ZnS and SrOAl Photoluminescent Floor Proximity Escape Path Markings for Use in Passenger Airplanes. February 1998.

ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007 - Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

California Title 24 - Nonresidential Compliance Manual for California's 2005 Energy Efficiency Standards

California Title 24 - Nonresidential Compliance Manual - Energy Efficiency Standards for Indoor Lighting

EXIT STAIR MARKING GUIDE - Suggested Best Practices for Marking Exit Stairs with Photoluminescent Exit Signs and Path Markings by the PSA and PSPA.

EXIT STAIR MARKING GUIDE - Suggested Best Practices for Marking Exit Stairs with Photoluminescent Exit Signs and Path Markings by the NRC Canada.



Industry Links:

AIA - Architects Institute of America
ANSI - American National Standards Institute
APTA - American Public Transportation Association
ASHRAE - American Society of Heating, Refrigerating & Air Conditioning Engineers
ASSE - American Society of Safety Engineers
ASTM - American Society for Testing and Materials
BOMA - Building Owners and Managers Association
DIN - Deutsches Institut Normung (German Institute for Standards)
DHS - US Department of Homeland Security
DoE - US Department of Energy
DSIRE - Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Energy Efficiency
Energy Star
FAA - US Federal Aviation Administration
Fire Protection Association of Australia
GBI - Green Building Initiative & Green Globes
GSA P100-2005 - Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Service
ICC - International Code Council
IESNA - Illuminating Engineering Society
IFMA - International Facility Managers Association
IMO - International Maritime Organization
ISO - International Standards Organization
NBI - New Buildings Institute
New York City Department of Buildings
NFPA - National Fire Protection Association
NFPA - Emergency Evacuation Planning Guide for People with Disabilities
NIST - National Institute of Standards and Technology
NRC - National Research Council Canada
NSC - National Safety Council
OHSA - Occupational Safety and Health Administration
PSA - Photoluminescent Safety Association
PSPA - Photoluminescent Safety Products Association
SSC - Smoke Safety Council
UFCA - Uniform Fire Code Association
UL - Underwriters Laboratory
United States Access Board
USMSA - United States Marine Safety Association
US Coast Guard
US Code of Regulations
US Fire Administration
USGBC & LEED - US Green Building Council



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